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What Is Biotechnology?
Jun 01, 2018

Biotechnology (biotechnology) are translated into biological engineering, research and application of biological technology, including genetic engineering, cell engineering, fermentation engineering and enzyme engineering, the development of modern biotechnology to high-throughput omics (omics) chip technology, artificial design and synthesis of gene and genome biology system biotechnology.

Biotechnology (biotechnology), refers to people on the basis of modern life science, combined with other basic scientific principles of science, the use of advanced science and technology means, according to advance the design of the modified organisms or processing biological materials, can produce required products for mankind or achieve a certain purpose. Biotechnology is a technology that people use microbes, plants and animals to process material materials. It is a technology that provides products to serve the society. Biotechnology mainly includes fermentation technology and modern biotechnology. Therefore, biotechnology is a new and comprehensive subject.

Modern biological technology integrated with genetic engineering, molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, genetics, cell biology, embryology, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, bioinformatics and multidisciplinary technology such as computer science, it can be used to study the law of life activities and provide product service for the society, etc.

In recent years, modern biotechnology, represented by genetic engineering, cell engineering, enzyme engineering and fermentation engineering, has developed rapidly and has increasingly affected and changed people's production and lifestyle. Biotechnology is "the technology of using living organisms (or substances of living organisms) to improve products, improve plants and animals, or cultivate microorganisms for special purposes". Biological engineering is generally referred to as the biological technology, refers to the use of biochemistry, molecular biology, microbiology, genetics, and the principle of combination of biochemical engineering, to transform or re-create design cell's genetic material, develop new varieties, use of the existing biological systems in industrial scale, the biochemical process to manufacture of industrial products. In short, it is the process of industrialization of living organisms, life systems, or life processes. Bioengineering including gene engineering, cell engineering, enzyme engineering, fermentation engineering, biology, electronic engineering, bioreactor, sterilization technology as well as the emerging protein engineering, etc., among them, the genetic engineering is the core of modern biological engineering. Genetic engineering, or genetic engineering, gene recombination technology) is to different biological gene in vitro shear combination, and carrier (DNA plasmid, bacteriophages, viruses) connection, and then turn to microorganisms or cells, cloning, and made into gene expression in cells or microorganisms, needed to produce proteins. There are more than 60% of the biological technology is applied to the pharmaceutical industry, to develop new drugs or characteristic to improvement of traditional medicine, which caused the reform of the pharmaceutical industry, biological pharmaceutical is developing rapidly. Biopharmaceutical is the process of applying bioengineering technology to the field of pharmaceutical manufacturing. That is, using cloning technology and tissue culture technology, DNA is cut, inserted, connected and recombined to obtain biomedical products. Biotech drugs is the microorganisms, parasites, animal toxins, biological tissue as the starting materials, adopting biological process or preparation, purification technology and biological technology and analysis of control of the intermediate and final quality of biological activation agents, including vaccine, vaccine, toxins, vaccine, blood serum, blood products, preparation of immunity, cell factor, the antigen, monoclonal antibody and genetic engineering products (recombinant DNA products), in vitro diagnostic reagent, etc. Human beings have developed and entered the clinical application stage of biological drugs, which can be divided into three categories according to their different USES: genetic engineering drugs, biological vaccines and biological diagnostic reagents. These products play an increasingly important role in diagnosing, preventing, controlling and even eliminating infectious diseases and protecting human health.

Generally, the development of new biological products must go through (1) laboratory research (exploration of production process routes and establishment of quality control standards); (2) preclinical studies (pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacodynamics and other animal experiments); (3) health food shall be tested for safety of tested products; (4) and drug is required to pass through a phase of clinical trial (with healthy volunteers test drug security), phase ii clinical trial (small-scale clinical pharmacodynamics research), the third phase of clinical trial (large-scale clinical pharmacodynamics research), and other five stages of research work, is likely to have been approved for trial production. Only after one year of trial production can a formal production approval document be submitted after the drug is reported to the public for quality stability and further expansion of clinical trials.

Application category

The medical field

The research in this area has received great attention. Stem cells, for example, use biotechnology in regenerative medicine, such as artificial organs and nerve repair. Alternatively, data can be analyzed by protein structure, and corresponding inhibitors (such as enzyme inhibitors) can be developed for functional domain. Use microarray nucleic acid chips, or protein chips, to find disease-causing genes. Or use antibody technology to deliver toxins to cancer cells with specific markers. Or use gene cloning technology, gene therapy and so on. Gene therapy, gene therapy using molecular biology methods aim genes into the body, to express the purpose gene product, so that the disease treatment, for the birth of combining modern medicine and molecular biology and new technology. Gene therapy, as a new method for the treatment of new diseases, has brought light to the radical treatment of some difficult diseases.

Agriculture food

With the rapid expansion of population, the food problem is the entry point of biotechnology application. Under the development of genetically cloned crops, in addition to cloning into anti-pest genes and anti-freeze genes, for example, rice containing vitamin A has also been developed. Cloning crops in limited arable land solves quality problems. In addition, the ornamental flowers and so on, also rely on the tissue culture technology, high quality flower reproduction production, improve the value of flowers. The famous ones are like Taiwan's iris. In addition, through genetic engineering technology, the milk cow that can produce clotting factor also provides medical use. The types of fertilizers produced mainly by the use of microbiological technology. Biological fertilizer not only to feed the crops, improve quality, enhance the cold resistance ability to resist pests, but also improve soil permeability, water retention, ph and other rational characteristics, can create good growth environment for crops root, so as to ensure the production of crops. Biological pesticides are produced by the use of microorganisms, antibiotics and genetic engineering to produce toxic substances that have the effect of killing insect diseases. It's not as effective as chemical pesticides, but it's long-lasting. Compared with chemical pesticides, pests are hard to develop resistance. It has little impact on the environment. It is less harmful to people and crops. But there are limits to the scope and method of use and so on.

Military science and technology

Examples of genetic weapons include influenza viruses that insert genes from the cobra venom and e. coli that contain anthrax. Genetic weapons are characterized by low production costs, high lethality and long duration. The use of the other side is difficult to find, difficult to prevent, difficult to treat. The method is simple to use and many ways to apply. Only harm people, not destroy weapons, equipment and facilities. And once used, it will have a strong psychological deterrent effect.

Industrial application

In industry, some chemical reactions are replaced by special metabolic pathways of industrial strains. In addition to the increase in specificity, under normal temperature and pressure, energy conservation. It is also called green industry because of its high specificity and low amount of waste.

The environmental protection

When the environment is damaged, it can be treated with the help of biotechnology, so as to protect the environment from the second harm. Biology has a high degree of specificity and can be eliminated for special pollution sources. Such as the cruise transportation of crude oil, due to the accident, the crude oil pollution of the sea, and the use of decomposition of heavy oil special microbial strains, for heavy oil decomposition, acceptable short chain fatty acids metabolism into environment, etc., to eliminate pollution. In addition, soil is polluted by heavy metals, and certain plants can be used to absorb pollution sources.