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Sweet And Transparent Liquids Have A Strong Aroma
Jan 10, 2018

Benzene (C6H6) A hydrocarbon, the simplest aromatics, is a sweet, flammable, carcinogenic, colorless and transparent liquid at room temperature with a strong aromatic odor. It is insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents, itself can also be used as organic solvents. Benzene has a ring system called benzene ring, the benzene ring to remove a hydrogen atom after the structure called phenyl, said Ph, so the chemical formula of benzene can also be written as PhH. Benzene is a basic raw material for petrochemical industry. Its production and technical level is one of the hallmarks of a country's petrochemical industry.

A benzene ring is the simplest aromatic ring, which consists of six carbon atoms forming a six-membered ring, one for each carbon atom and six for benzene, all of which are hydrogen atoms.

However, experiments show that benzene can not bromine water or acidic KMnO4 fade, indicating that benzene does not have carbon-carbon double bonds. Studies have shown that the carbon atoms in the main chain of the benzene ring are not aligned by single and double bonds as previously known (proposed by Kekule), and the bonds between every two carbon atoms are the same. Double bond is not a single bond (large π bond) connection.

From the molecular orbital theory point of view, it can be considered that six p orbitals of benzene interact to form six π orbitals, where ψ1. ψ2. ψ3 is a bond of lower energy, ψ4. ψ5. ψ6 is a higher energy anti-bond orbit. ψ2. ψ3 and ψ4. ψ5 is two pairs of degenerate orbits. At the ground state, the electron cloud distribution of benzene is the result of three bonding orbitals superimposed. Therefore, the electron cloud is uniformly distributed on the benzene rings and on the ring atoms to form a closed electron cloud. It is the source of benzene ring current in the magnetic field.

Benzene is a colorless, sweet, transparent liquid at room temperature with a density less than water and a strong aromatic odor. Benzene has a boiling point of 80.1 ° C and a melting point of 5.5 ° C. Benzene has a lower water density than water and a density of 0.88 g / ml, but its molecular mass is heavier than water. Benzene is a very good organic solvent, dissolving organic molecules and some non-polar inorganic molecules with strong ability, in addition to glycerol, ethylene glycol and other polyols External with most organic solvents immiscible. In addition to iodine and sulfur slightly dissolved, the inorganic does not dissolve in benzene.