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Chemical Description Of Carboxylic Acid
Nov 09, 2018

In carboxylic acid molecules, carboxyl carbon atoms with sp2 hybrid orbitals respectively with hydroxyl and two oxygen atoms form 3 sigma bond, the three sigma keys are in the same plane, the remaining a p electrons and oxygen atoms to form PI bond, constitute the carboxyl of C = O PI bond, but - OH, part of the carboxyl oxygen has a pair of lone electron, form p - with PI PI conjugated system. Since p-key conjugate, the electron cloud on the oxygen atom of -oh group moves towards the carbonyl group, the electron cloud between o-h group is closer to the oxygen atom, making the polarity of o-h bond enhanced, which is conducive to the dissociation of H atom. So carboxylic acids are more acidic than alcohols. When the carboxylic acid is dissociated to H, p- sion conjugation is more complete, bond lengths are averaged, negative charges on the -coo derivatives are no longer concentrated on one oxygen atom, but are distributed equally on two oxygen atoms.