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Microbiological pharmaceutical technology
May 25, 2018

Industrial microorganism technology is an important support for sustainable development, and it is the fundamental technical support to solve resource crisis, ecological environment crisis and transform traditional industries. With the development of industrial microorganism, modern biotechnology has penetrated into almost all industrial fields including medicine, agriculture, energy, chemical industry and environmental protection, and played an important role. Countries such as Europe and the United States, has been developed in different degrees with a biological process in decades to replace chemical processes of strategic plan, it can be seen that the industrial microbial technology important in the process of social development in the future.

Microbiological pharmaceutical technology is the most important component of industrial microbiological technology. Microbial drug use begins with known antibiotics, antibiotic generally defined as: is a low concentrations to selectively inhibit or other biological function of microbial products and their derivatives. (someone once proposed to animal and plant sources have the same physiological activity of this kind of material such as fish, allicin, berberine and so on also attributed to the category of antibiotics, but most scholars believe that the traditional concept of antibiotics should still limited to microbial secondary metabolites.) In recent years, due to the development of the base of life science and the application of various new biotechnology, reports of microorganisms in addition to other than the anti-infection, anti-tumor bioactive substances are increasing, such as the specificity of the enzyme inhibitors, immune modulators, receptor antagonist and antioxidants, such as the active is beyond the scope of control some microbial life activities. But these substances are microbial secondary metabolites, in its biosynthesis mechanism, screening research procedure and production process, etc, all have a common characteristic and antibiotics, but make them known as antibiotics obviously is not appropriate, so many scholars put the microorganism produced by these having physical activity (or pharmacological activities) drugs are collectively referred to as secondary metabolites of microorganisms. The production technology of microbiological drugs is microbiological pharmaceutical technology. It can be considered to include five aspects:

The first is the acquisition of strains

To obtain or purchase directly from scientific research institutions, institutions of higher learning, factories or germ line preservation departments according to the data; Isolate and screen new microbial strains from nature.

Separation of thinking New strains of separation is mixed from each kind of microbial strains in accordance with the requirements of production, the characteristics of various screening methods, quickly and accurately the strains selected you need. If laboratory or production strains accidentally contaminate the miscellaneous bacteria, they must be separated and purified again. Specific separation operations are performed from the following aspects.

Plan: first, consult the data to understand the growth and culture characteristics of the required strains.

Sampling: collect samples specifically.

Proliferation: artificially control nutrients or culture conditions to allow the desired species to proliferate and culture, after a quantitative advantage.

Separation: the separation technique is used to obtain pure species.

Determination of fermentation performance: determination of production performance. These features include morphology, culture characteristics, nutritional requirements, physiological and biochemical characteristics, fermentation period, product variety and production, the highest temperature tolerance, the optimum temperature for the growth and fermentation, the optimal pH, extraction technology and so on.

Second, the breeding of high yield strains

Industrial production strains have been bred. Breeding of industrial strains is a multidirectional modification of a strain for a specific biotechnology purpose using genetic principles and techniques. Through transformation, the existing good traits can be strengthened, or bad properties can be removed or new traits added.

Methods of industrial seed breeding: mutagenesis, gene transfer, gene recombination.

The breeding process includes the following three steps: (1) the introduction of beneficial genotypes without affecting the vigor of the species. (2) the selection of the desired genotype. (3) evaluation of improved strains (including experimental scale and industrial production scale).

Factors to be taken into account when selecting breeding methods (1) the nature of the traits to be improved and their relationship to fermentation processes (e.g. batch or continuous fermentation tests); (2) understanding of the genetic and biochemical aspects of this particular strain; (3) economic expenses. If there is little knowledge of the basic characters and techniques of specific strains, random mutagenesis, screening and breeding are mostly adopted. If we have a deep understanding of its genetic and biochemical characters, we can choose gene recombination for directional breeding.

Industrial strains specific improvement ideas: (1) remove or bypass the limiting step of metabolic pathways (by increasing the specific gene copy number or increase the corresponding gene expression ability to improve the speed limit on enzyme content; New metabolic steps are introduced in the metabolic pathway, thus providing a bypass metabolic pathway. (2) increase the concentration of the precursor. (3) change the metabolic pathway, reduce the generation of useless by-products and improve the resistance of bacteria to high concentration of potentially toxic substrates, precursors or products. (4) inhibition or elimination of product decomposition enzymes. (5) improve the ability of bacteria to secrete products. (6) eliminate feedback inhibition of metabolic products. Such as inducting structural analogue resistance of metabolic products.

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